1977 - Holmes Basic D&D set
1980 - Arduin Adventure
1981 - Moldvay Basic D&D set
1983 - Mentzer Basic D&D set
1994 - The Classic D&D Game
1996 - The Classic D&D Game (different cover)
1999 - Holmes Basic rulebook and B2 reprints included in Silver Anniversary Box
2004 - D&D Basic Game (3rd)
2006 - D&D Basic Game (revised; 3rd)
2008 - D&D Roleplaying Game Starter Set (4th edition AD&D)
2010 - D&D Fantasy Roleplaying Game Starter Set (4th)
(with thanks to the Acaeum, as always).
We still await a beginner's set for the OSR, either for an existing retroclone or a "community starter" as discussed at the OD&D Discussion Forums. (Let me know if I have forgotten something; I refer here to a physical boxed set, not just a pdf of starter rules, etc).
Addendum: Yesterday, James on the Underdark Gazette posted An Introduction to Game-Mastering an Old School FRPG, a revision of a piece previously intended for either a Brave Halfling intro set (which changed to a different project) or the OD&D community starter linked above (which petered out).